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C语言大学教程(第七版)(英文版)
丛   书   名:国外计算机科学教材系列
作   译   者:Paul Deitel(保罗? 戴特尔),Harvey Deitel(哈维? 戴特尔) 出 版 日 期:2018-06-01
出   版   社:电子工业出版社 维   护   人:冯小贝 
书   代   号:G0343370 I S B N:9787121343377

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本书是全球畅销的C语言教程之一。全书系统地介绍了4种当今流行的程序设计方法——面向过程、基于对象、面向对象以及泛型编程,内容全面、生动、易懂,作者由浅入深地介绍了结构化编程及软件工程的基本概念,从简...
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    ISBN:9787121343377

    开 本:16开

    印 张:50.5

    版 次:01-01

    页 数:808

    字 数:1891.0

    内容简介

    本书是全球畅销的C语言教程之一。全书系统地介绍了4种当今流行的程序设计方法——面向过程、基于对象、面向对象以及泛型编程,内容全面、生动、易懂,作者由浅入深地介绍了结构化编程及软件工程的基本概念,从简单的概念到最终的完整的语言描述,清晰、准确、透彻、详细地讲解了C语言,尤其注重程序设计思想和方法的介绍。相对于上一版,这一版在内容方面新增加了C安全程序设计、"更上一层楼”习题集,更新了C++和面向对象程序设计、基于Allegro的游戏编程、C99标准介绍等内容。

    本书目录

    Contents
    Chapter 1  Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the Web	1
    1.1  Introduction	2
    1.2  Computers and the Internet in Industry and Research	2
    1.3  Hardware and Software	4
    1.4  Data Hierarchy	6
    1.5  Programming Languages	7
    1.6  The C Programming Language	7
    1.7  C Standard Library	9
    1.8  C++ and Other C-Based Languages	9
    1.9  Object Technology	10
    1.10  Typical C Program Development Environment	12
    1.11  Test-Driving a C Application in Windows, Linux and Mac OS X	14
    1.12  Operating Systems	21
    1.13  The Internet and World Wide Web	23
    1.14  Some Key Software Development Terminology	24
    1.15  Keeping Up-to-Date with Information Technologies	25
    1.16  Web Resources	26
    Chapter 2  Introduction to C Programming	32
    2.1  Introduction	32
    2.2  A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text	32
    2.3  Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers	36
    2.4  Memory Concepts	39
    2.5  Arithmetic in C	40
    2.6  Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators	43
    2.7  Secure C Programming	46
    Chapter 3  Structured Program Development in C	58
    3.1  Introduction	58
    3.2  Algorithms	59
    3.3  Pseudocode	59
    3.4  Control Structures	59
    3.5  The if Selection Statement	61
    3.6  The if…else Selection Statement	62
    3.7  The while Repetition Statement	65
    3.8  Formulating Algorithms Case Study 1: CounterControlled Repetition	66
    3.9  Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement Case Study 2: 
    Sentinel-Controlled Repetition	67
    3.10  Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement Case Study 3: 
    Nested Control Statements	72
    3.11  Assignment Operators	75
    3.12  Increment and Decrement Operators	76
    3.13  Secure C Programming	78
    Chapter 4  C Program Control	95
    4.1  Introduction	95
    4.2  Repetition Essentials	96
    4.3  Counter-Controlled Repetition	96
    4.4  for Repetition Statement	98
    4.5  for Statement: Notes and Observations	100
    4.6  Examples Using the for Statement	100
    4.7  switch Multiple-Selection Statement	103
    4.8  do…while Repetition Statement	108
    4.9  break and continue Statements	109
    4.10  Logical Operators	111
    4.11  Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators	113
    4.12  Structured Programming Summary	114
    4.13  Secure C Programming	118
    Chapter 5  C Functions	132
    5.1  Introduction	133
    5.2  Program Modules in C	133
    5.3  Math Library Functions	134
    5.4  Functions	135
    5.5  Function Definitions	135
    5.6  Function Prototypes: A Deeper Look	139
    5.7  Function Call Stack and Stack Frames	141
    5.8  Headers	143
    5.9  Passing Arguments By Value and By Reference	144
    5.10  Random Number Generation	145
    5.11  Example: A Game of Chance	148
    5.12  Storage Classes	151
    5.13  Scope Rules	152
    5.14  Recursion	155
    5.15  Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series	158
    5.16  Recursion vs. Iteration	160
    5.17  Secure C Programming	162
    Chapter 6  C Arrays	181
    6.1  Introduction	181
    6.2  Arrays	182
    6.3  Defining Arrays	182
    6.4  Array Examples	183
    6.5  Passing Arrays to Functions	193
    6.6  Sorting Arrays	196
    6.7  Case Study: Computing Mean, Median and Mode Using Arrays	198
    6.8  Searching Arrays	202
    6.9  Multidimensional Arrays	206
    6.10  Variable-Length Arrays	211
    6.11  Secure C Programming	213
    Chapter 7  C Pointers	230
    7.1  Introduction	231
    7.2  Pointer Variable Definitions and Initialization	231
    7.3  Pointer Operators	232
    7.4  Passing Arguments to Functions by Reference	233
    7.5  Using the const Qualifier with Pointers	235
    7.6  Bubble Sort Using Pass-by-Reference	241
    7.7  sizeof Operator	243
    7.8  Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic	245
    7.9  Relationship between Pointers and Arrays	247
    7.10  Arrays of Pointers	250
    7.11  Case Study: Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation	251
    7.12  Pointers to Functions	254
    7.13  Secure C Programming	258
    Chapter 8  C Characters and Strings	277
    8.1  Introduction	278
    8.2  Fundamentals of Strings and Characters	278
    8.3  Character-Handling Library	280
    8.4  String-Conversion Functions	284
    8.5  Standard Input/Output Library Functions	286
    8.6  String-Manipulation Functions of the StringHandling Library	289
    8.7  Comparison Functions of the String-Handling Library	291
    8.8  Search Functions of the String-Handling Library	292
    8.9  Memory Functions of the String-Handling Library	297
    8.10  Other Functions of the String-Handling Library	300
    8.11  Secure C Programming	301
    Chapter 9  C Formatted Input/Output	314
    9.1  Introduction	314
    9.2  Streams	315
    9.3  Formatting Output with printf	315
    9.4  Printing Integers	315
    9.5  Printing Floating-Point Numbers	316
    9.6  Printing Strings and Characters	318
    9.7  Other Conversion Specifiers	318
    9.8  Printing with Field Widths and Precision	319
    9.9  Using Flags in the printf Format Control String	321
    9.10  Printing Literals and Escape Sequences	323
    9.11  Reading Formatted Input with scanf	323
    9.12  Secure C Programming	328
    Chapter 10  C Structures, Unions, Bit Manipulation and Enumerations	335
    10.1  Introduction	336
    10.2  Structure Definitions	336
    10.3  Initializing Structures	338
    10.4  Accessing Structure Members	338
    10.5  Using Structures with Functions	340
    10.6  typedef	340
    10.7  Example: High-Performance Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation	341
    10.8  Unions	343
    10.9  Bitwise Operators	344
    10.10  Bit Fields	351
    10.11  Enumeration Constants	353
    10.12  Secure C Programming	355
    Chapter 11  C File Processing	365
    11.1  Introduction	365
    11.2  Files and Streams	366
    11.3  Creating a Sequential-Access File	366
    11.4  Reading Data from a Sequential-Access File	370
    11.5  Random-Access Files	373
    11.6  Creating a Random-Access File	374
    11.7  Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File	375
    11.8  Reading Data from a Random-Access File	377
    11.9  Case Study: Transaction-Processing Program	379
    11.10  Secure C Programming	383
    Chapter 12  C Data Structures	393
    12.1  Introduction	394
    12.2  Self-Referential Structures	394
    12.3  Dynamic Memory Allocation	395
    12.4  Linked Lists	396
    12.5  Stacks	402
    12.6  Queues	406
    12.7  Trees	411
    12.8  Secure C Programming	415
    Chapter 13  C Preprocessor	427
    13.1  Introduction	427
    13.2  #include Preprocessor Directive	428
    13.3  #define Preprocessor Directive: Symbolic Constants	428
    13.4  #define Preprocessor Directive: Macros	429
    13.5  Conditional Compilation	430
    13.6  #error and #pragma Preprocessor Directives	431
    13.7  # and ## Operators	432
    13.8  Line Numbers	432
    13.9  Predefined Symbolic Constants	432
    13.10  Assertions	433
    13.11  Secure C Programming	433
    Chapter 14  Other C Topics	438
    14.1  Introduction	438
    14.2  Redirecting I/O	438
    14.3  Variable-Length Argument Lists	439
    14.4  Using Command-Line Arguments	441
    14.5  Notes on Compiling Multiple-Source-File Programs	442
    14.6  Program Termination with exit and atexit	443
    14.7  Suffixes for Integer and Floating-Point Literals	444
    14.8  Signal Handling	445
    14.9  Dynamic Memory Allocation: Functions calloc and realloc	447
    14.10  Unconditional Branching with goto	447
    Chapter 15  C++ as a Better C; Introducing Object Technology	453
    15.1  Introduction	454
    15.2  C++	454
    15.3  A Simple Program: Adding Two Integers	454
    15.4  C++ Standard Library	456
    15.5  Header Files	457
    15.6  Inline Functions	458
    15.7  References and Reference Parameters	460
    15.8  Empty Parameter Lists	464
    15.9  Default Arguments	464
    15.10  Unary Scope Resolution Operator	466
    15.11  Function Overloading	467
    15.12  Function Templates	469
    15.13  Introduction to C++ Standard Library Class Template vector	471
    15.14  Introduction to Object Technology and the UML	476
    15.15  Wrap-Up	479
    Chapter 16  Introduction to Classes, Objects and Strings	486
    16.1  Introduction	486
    16.2  Defining a Class with a Member Function	487
    16.3  Defining a Member Function with a Parameter	489
    16.4  Data Members, set Functions and get Functions	492
    16.5  Initializing Objects with Constructors	496
    16.6  Placing a Class in a Separate File for Reusability	499
    16.7  Separating Interface from Implementation	502
    16.8  Validating Data with set Functions	507
    16.9  Wrap-Up	510
    Chapter 17  Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1	517
    17.1  Introduction	517
    17.2  Time Class Case Study	518
    17.3  Class Scope and Accessing Class Members	524
    17.4  Separating Interface from Implementation	525
    17.5  Access Functions and Utility Functions	526
    17.6  Time Class Case Study: Constructors with Default Arguments	528
    17.7  Destructors	532
    17.8  When Constructors and Destructors Are Called	532
    17.9  Time Class Case Study: A Subtle Trap—Returning a Reference to a private Data Member	535
    17.10  Default Memberwise Assignment	537
    17.11  Wrap-Up	539
    Chapter 18  Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2	545
    18.1  Introduction	545
    18.2  const (Constant) Objects and const Member Functions	546
    18.3  Composition: Objects as Members of Classes	551
    18.4  friend Functions and friend Classes	556
    18.5  Using the this Pointer	558
    18.6  static Class Members	562
    18.7  Proxy Classes	565
    18.8  Wrap-Up	568
    Chapter 19  Operator Overloading; Class string	574
    19.1  Introduction	574
    19.2  Using the Overloaded Operators of Standard Library Class string	575
    19.3  Fundamentals of Operator Overloading	578
    19.4  Overloading Binary Operators	579
    19.5  Overloading the Binary Stream Insertion and Stream Extraction Operators	579
    19.6  Overloading Unary Operators	583
    19.7  Overloading the Unary Prefix and Postfix ++ and --Operators	583
    19.8  Case Study: A Date Class	584
    19.9  Dynamic Memory Management	588
    19.10  Case Study: Array Class	590
    19.11  Operators as Member Functions vs. Non-Member Functions	599
    19.12  Converting between Types	600
    19.13  explicit Constructors	601
    19.14  Building a String Class	603
    19.15  Wrap-Up	603
    Chapter 20  Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance	614
    20.1  Introduction	615
    20.2  Base Classes and Derived Classes	615
    20.3  protected Members	617
    20.4  Relationship between Base Classes and Derived Classes	617
    20.5  Constructors and Destructors in Derived Classes	635
    20.6  public, protected and private Inheritance	636
    20.7  Software Engineering with Inheritance	636
    20.8  Wrap-Up	637
    Chapter 21  Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism	642
    21.1  Introduction	643
    21.2  Introduction to Polymorphism: Polymorphic Video Game	643
    21.3  Relationships Among Objects in an Inheritance Hierarchy	644
    21.4  Type Fields and switch Statements	653
    21.5  Abstract Classes and Pure virtual Functions	654
    21.6  Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism	656
    21.7  (Optional) Polymorphism, Virtual Functions and Dynamic Binding “Under the Hood”	667
    21.8  Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism and Runtime Type Information 
    with Downcasting, dynamic_cast, typeid and type_info	670
    21.9  Virtual Destructors	672
    21.10  Wrap-Up	673
    Chapter 22  Templates	679
    22.1  Introduction	679
    22.2  Function Templates	680
    22.3  Overloading Function Templates	682
    22.4  Class Templates	683
    22.5  Nontype Parameters and Default Types for Class Templates	687
    22.6  Wrap-Up	688
    Chapter 23  Stream Input/Output	692
    23.1  Introduction	693
    23.2  Streams	693
    23.3  Stream Output	696
    23.4  Stream Input	697
    23.5  Unformatted I/O Using read, write and gcount	700
    23.6  Introduction to Stream Manipulators	701
    23.7  Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators	705
    23.8  Stream Error States	712
    23.9  Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream	714
    23.10  Wrap-Up	714
    Chapter 24  Exception Handling: A Deeper Look	723
    24.1  Introduction	723
    24.2  Example: Handling an Attempt to Divide by Zero	724
    24.3  When to Use Exception Handling	728
    24.4  Rethrowing an Exception	729
    24.5  Processing Unexpected Exceptions	731
    24.6  Stack Unwinding	731
    24.7  Constructors, Destructors and Exception Handling	732
    24.8  Exceptions and Inheritance	733
    24.9  Processing new Failures	733
    24.10  Class unique_ptr and Dynamic Memory Allocation	735
    24.11  Standard Library Exception Hierarchy	737
    24.12  Wrap-Up	739
    Appendix A  Operator Precedence Chart	744
    Appendix B  ASCII Character Set	747
    Appendix C  Number Systems	748
    Appendix D  Game Programming: Solving Sudoku	759
    Index	766
    展开

    前     言

    Preface Welcome to the C programming language—and to C++, too! This book presents leadingedge computing technologies for college students, instructors and software development professionals. At the heart of the book is the Deitel signature “live-code approach.” We present concepts in the context of complete working programs, rather than in code snippets. Each code example is followed by one or more sample executions. Read the online Before You Begin section (www.deitel.com/books/chtp7/chtp7_ BYB.pdf) to learn how to set up your computer to run the hundreds of code examples. All the source code is available at www.deitel.com/books/ chtp7/ and www.pearsoninternationaleditions.com/deitel . Use the source code we provide to run every program as you study it. We believe that this book and its support materials will give you an informative, challenging and entertaining introduction to C. As you read the book, if you have questions, send an e-mail to deitel@deitel.com—we’ll respond promptly. For book updates, visit www.deitel.com/books/chtp7/, join our communities on Facebook (www.deitel.com/deitelfan), Twitter (@deitel) and Google+ (gplus.to/deitel), and subscribe to the Deitel Buzz Online newsletter (www.deitel.com/newsletter/ subscribe.html). New and Updated Features Here are some key features of C How to Program, 7/e: ? Coverage of the New C standard. The previous edition of the book conformed to “standard C” and included a detailed appendix on the C99 standard. The New C Standard was approved just before C How to Program, 7/e went to publication. The new standard incorporates both C99 and the more recent C1X—now referred to as C11 or simply “the C standard” since its approval in 2011. Support for the new standard varies by compiler. The vast majority of our readership uses either the GNU gcc compiler—which supports several of the key features in the new standard—or the Microsoft Visual C++ compiler. Microsoft supports only a limited subset of the features that were added to C in C99 and C11—primarily the features that are also required by the C++ standard. To accommodate all of our readers, we placed the discussion of the new standard in optional, easy-to-use-or-omit sections and in Appendix F, Introduction to the New C Standard. We’ve also replaced various deprecated capabilities with newer preferred versions as a result of the new C standard. ? New Chapter 1. The new Chapter 1 engages students with intriguing facts and figures to get them excited about studying computers and computer programming. The chapter includes a table of some of the research made possible by computers and the Internet, current technology trends and hardware discussion, the data hierarchy, a new section on social networking, a table of business and technology publications and websites that will help you stay up to date with the latest technology news and trends, and updated exercises. We’ve included test-drives that show how to run a command-line C program on Microsoft Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. ? Secure C Programming Sections. We’ve added notes about secure C programming to many of the C programming chapters. We’ve also posted a Secure C Programming Resource Center at www.deitel.com/SecureC/. For more details, see the section “A Note About Secure C Programming” in this Preface. ? Focus on Performance Issues. C (and C++) are favored by designers of performance-intensive applications such as operating systems, real-time systems, embedded systems and communications systems, so we focus intensively on performance issues. ? “Making a Difference” Exercise Sets. We encourage you to use computers and the Internet to research and solve problems that really matter. These exercises are meant to increase awareness of important issues the world is facing. We hope you’ll approach them with your own values, politics and beliefs. ? All Code Tested on Windows and Linux. We’ve tested every example and exercise program using Visual C++ and GNU gcc in Windows and Linux, respectively. ? Updated Coverage of C++ and Object-Oriented Programming. We updated Chapters 15–24 on object-oriented programming in C++ with material from our textbook C++ How to Program, 8/e. ? Sorting: A Deeper Look. Sorting places data in order, based on one or more sort keys. We begin our presentation of sorting with a simple algorithm in Chapter 6—in Appendix E, we present a deeper look. We consider several algorithms and compare them with regard to their memory consumption and processor demands. For this purpose, we introduce Big O notation, which indicates how hard an algorithm may have to work to solve a problem. Through examples and exercises, Appendix E discusses the selection sort, insertion sort, recursive merge sort, recursive selection sort, bucket sort and recursive Quicksort. Sorting is an interesting problem because different sorting techniques achieve the same final result but they can vary hugely in their consumption of memory, CPU time and other system resources. ? Titled Programming Exercises. All the programming exercises are titled to help instructors tune assignments for their classes. ? Debugger Appendices. We’ve updated the Visual C++? and GNU gdb debugging appendices. ? Order of Evaluation. We added cautions about order of evaluation issues. ? Additional Exercises. We added more function pointer exercises. We also added a Fibonacci exercise project that improves the Fibonacci recursion example (tail recursion). ? C++-Style // Comments. We use the newer, more concise C++-style // comments in preference to C’s older style /*...*/ comments. ? C Standard Library. Section 1.7 references P.J. Plauger’s Dinkumware website (www.dinkumware.com/ manuals/default.aspx) where students can find thorough searchable documentation for the C Standard Library functions. A Note About Secure C Programming Throughout this book, we focus on C programming fundamentals. When we write each How to Program book, we search the corresponding language’s standards document for the features that we feel novices need to learn in a first programming course, and features that existing programmers need to know to begin working in that language. We must also cover programming fundamentals and computer-science fundamentals for novice programmers—our core audience. Industrial-strength coding techniques in any programming language are beyond the scope of an introductory textbook. For that reason, our Secure C Programming sections present some key issues and techniques, and provide links and references so you can continue learning. Experience has shown that it’s difficult to build industrial-strength systems that stand up to attacks from viruses, worms, etc. Today, via the Internet, such attacks can be instantaneous and global in scope. Software vulnerabilities often come from simple programming issues. Building security into software from the start of the development cycle can greatly reduce costs and vulnerabilities. The CERT? Coordination Center (www.cert.org) was created to analyze and respond promptly to attacks. CERT—the Computer Emergency Response Team—publishes and promotes secure coding standards to help C programmers and others implement industrial-strength systems that avoid the programming practices that open systems to attacks. The CERT standards evolve as new security issues arise. We’ve upgraded our code (as appropriate for an introductory book) to conform to various CERT recommendations. If you’ll be building C systems in industry, consider reading The CERT C Secure Coding Standard (Robert Seacord, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009) and Secure Coding in C and C++ (Robert Seacord, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2006). The CERT guidelines are available free online at www.securecoding.cert.org. Mr. Seacord, a technical reviewer for the C portion of this book, provided specific recommendations on each of our new Secure C Programming sections. Mr. Seacord is the Secure Coding Manager at CERT at Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute (SEI) and an adjunct professor in the Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science. The Secure C Programming sections at the ends of Chapters 2–13 discuss many important topics, including testing for arithmetic overflows, using unsigned integer types, new more secure functions in the C standard’s Annex K, the importance of checking the status information returned by standard-library functions, range checking, secure random-number generation, array bounds checking, techniques for preventing buffer overflows, input validation, avoiding undefined behaviors, choosing functions that return status information vs. using similar functions that do not, ensuring that pointers are always NULL or contain valid addresses, using C functions vs. using preprocessor macros, and more. Web-Based Materials This book is supported by substantial online materials. The book’s Companion Website (www.pearso- ninternationaleditions.com/deitel) contains source code for all the code examples and the following appendices in searchable PDF format: ? Appendix E, Sorting: A Deeper Look ? Appendix F, Introduction to the New C Standard ? Appendix G, Using the Visual Studio Debugger ? Appendix H, Using the GNU Debugger Dependency Charts Figures 1 and 2 show the dependencies among the chapters to help instructors plan their syllabi. C How to Program, 7/e is appropriate for CS1 and CS2 courses, and intermediatelevel C and C++ programming courses. The C++ part of the book assumes that you’ve studied the C part. Fig. 1 | C chapter dependency chart. Fig. 2 | C++ chapter dependency chart. Teaching Approach C How to Program, 7/e, contains a rich collection of examples. We focus on good software engineering and stressing program clarity. Syntax Shading. For readability, we syntax shade the code, similar to the way most IDEs and code editors syntax color code. Our syntax-shading conventions are: Code Highlighting. We place gray rectangles around the key code. Using Fonts for Emphasis. We place the key terms and the index’s page reference for each defining occurrence in bold text for easy reference. We emphasize on-screen components in the bold Helvetica font (e.g., the File menu) and C program text in the Lucida font (for example, int x = 5;). Objectives. The opening quotes are followed by a list of chapter objectives. Illustrations/Figures. Abundant charts, tables, line drawings, UML diagrams, programs and program output are included. Programming Tips. We include programming tips to help you focus on important aspects of program development. These tips and practices represent the best we’ve gleaned from a combined seven decades of programming and teaching experience. Good Programming Practice The Good Programming Practices call attention to techniques that will help you produce programs that are clearer, more understandable and more maintainable. Common Programming Error Pointing out these Common Programming Errors reduces the likelihood that you’ll make them. Error-Prevention Tip These tips contain suggestions for exposing and removing bugs from your programs; many describe aspects of C that prevent bugs from getting into programs in the first place. Performance Tip These tips highlight opportunities for making your programs run faster or minimizing the amount of memory that they occupy. Portability Tip The Portability Tips help you write code that will run on a variety of platforms. Software Engineering Observation The Software Engineering Observations highlight architectural and design issues that affect the construction of software systems, especially large-scale systems. Summary Bullets. We present a section-by-section, bullet-list summary of the chapter. Terminology. We include an alphabetized list of the important terms defined in each chapter with the page number of each term’s defining occurrence for easy reference. Self-Review Exercises and Answers. Extensive self-review exercises and answers are included for self-study. Exercises. Each chapter concludes with a substantial set of exercises including: ? simple recall of important terminology and concepts ? identifying the errors in code samples ? writing individual program statements ? writing small portions of C functions and C++ member functions and classes ? writing complete programs ? implementing major projects Index. We’ve included an extensive index, which is especially useful when you use the book as a reference. Software Used in C How to Program, 7/e We wrote C How to Program, 7/e using Microsoft’s free Visual C++ Express Edition (which can compile both C and C++ programs and can be downloaded from www.microsoft.com/express/downloads/) and the free GNU C and C++ compilers (gcc.gnu.org/install/binaries.html), which are already installed on most Linux systems and can be installed on Mac OS X and Windows systems. Apple includes GNU C and C++ in their Xcode development tools, which Mac OS X users can download from developer.apple.com/ technologies/tools/xcode.html. For other free C and C++ compilers, visit: CourseSmart Web Books Today’s students and instructors have increasing demands on their time and money. Pearson has responded to that need by offering digital texts and course materials online through CourseSmart. CourseSmart allows faculty to review course materials online, saving time and costs. It offers students a high-quality digital version of the text for less than the cost of a print copy. Students receive the same content offered in the print textbook enhanced by search, note-taking and printing tools. For more information, visit www.coursesmart.co.uk Instructor Resources The following supplements are available to qualified instructors only through Pearson Education’s Instructor Resource Center www.pearsoninternationaleditions.com/ deitel ? PowerPoint? slides containing all the code and figures in the text, plus bulleted items that summarize key points. ? Test Item File of multiple-choice questions (approximately two per book section) ? Solutions Manual with solutions to most of the end-of-chapter exercises. Please check the Instructor Resource Center to determine which exercises have solutions. Please do not write to us requesting access to the Pearson Instructor’s Resource Center. Access is restricted to college instructors teaching from the book. Instructors may obtain access only through their Pearson representatives. If you’re not a registered faculty member, contact your Pearson representative. Solutions are not provided for “project” exercises. Check out our Programming Projects Resource Center for lots of additional exercise and project possibilities (www.deitel.com/ProgrammingProjects/). Acknowledgments We’d like to thank Abbey Deitel and Barbara Deitel for long hours devoted to this project. We’re fortunate to have worked with the dedicated team of publishing professionals at Pearson. We appreciate the guidance, savvy and energy of Michael Hirsch, Editor-in-Chief of Computer Science. Carole Snyder and Bob Engelhardt did a marvelous job managing the review and production processes, respectively. C How to Program, 7/e Reviewers We wish to acknowledge the efforts of our reviewers. Under tight deadlines, they scrutinized the text and the programs and provided countless suggestions for improving the presentation: Dr. John F. Doyle (Indiana University Southeast), Hemanth H.M. (Software Engineer at SonicWALL), Vytautus Leonavicius (Microsoft), Robert Seacord (Secure Coding Manager at SEI/CERT, author of The CERT C Secure Coding Standard and technical expert for the international standardization working group for the programming language C) and José Antonio González Seco (Parliament of Andalusia). Other Recent Editions Reviewers William Albrecht (University of South Florida), Ian Barland (Radford University), Ed James Beckham (Altera), John Benito (Blue Pilot Consulting, Inc. and Convener of ISO WG14—the Working Group responsible for the C Programming Language Standard), Alireza Fazelpour (Palm Beach Community College), Mahesh Hariharan (Microsoft), Kevin Mark Jones (Hewlett Packard), Lawrence Jones, (UGS Corp.), Don Kostuch (Independent Consultant), Xiaolong Li (Indiana State University), William Mike Miller (Edison Design Group, Inc.), Tom Rethard (The University of Texas at Arlington), Benjamin Seyfarth (University of Southern Mississippi), Gary Sibbitts (St. Louis Community College at Meramec), William Smith (Tulsa Community College) and Douglas Walls (Senior Staff Engineer, C compiler, Sun Microsystems). Well, there you have it! C is a powerful programming language that will help you write high-performance programs quickly and effectively. C scales nicely into the realm of enterprise systems development to help organizations build their business-critical and mission-critical information systems. As you read the book, we would sincerely appreciate your comments, criticisms, corrections and suggestions for improving the text. Please address all correspondence to: We’ll respond promptly, and post corrections and clarifications on: We hope you enjoy working with C How to Program, Seventh Edition as much as we enjoyed writing it! Paul Deitel Harvey Deitel January 2012 The publishers wish to thank Atriya Sen, of the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, for reviewing the content of the International Edition. About the Authors Paul Deitel, CEO and Chief Technical Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., is a graduate of MIT, where he studied Information Technology. Through Deitel & Associates, Inc., he has delivered hundreds of programming courses to industry clients, including Cisco, IBM, Siemens, Sun Microsystems, Dell, Lucent Technologies, Fidelity, NASA at the Kennedy Space Center, the National Severe Storm Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, Rogue Wave Software, Boeing, SunGard Higher Education, Stratus, Cambridge Technology Partners, One Wave, Hyperion Software, Adra Systems, Entergy, CableData Systems, Nortel Networks, Puma, iRobot, Invensys and many more. He and his co-author, Dr. Harvey M. Deitel, are the world’s best-selling programming-language textbook/professional book/video authors. Dr. Harvey Deitel, Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., has 50 years of experience in the computer field. Dr. Deitel earned B.S. and M.S. degrees from MIT and a Ph.D. from Boston University. He has extensive college teaching experience, including earning tenure and serving as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department at Boston College before founding Deitel & Associates, Inc., in 1991 with his son, Paul Deitel. The Deitels’ publications have earned international recognition, with translations published in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, German, Russian, Spanish, French, Polish, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Urdu and Turkish. Dr. Deitel has delivered hundreds of professional programming seminars to major corporations, academic institutions, government organizations and the military. Corporate Training from Deitel & Associates, Inc. Deitel & Associates, Inc., founded by Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel, is an internationally recognized authoring, corporate training and software development organization specializing in computer programming languages, object technology, Android and iPhone app development and Internet and web software technology. The company offers instructorled training courses delivered at client sites worldwide on major programming languages and platforms, including C, C++, Visual C++?, Java, Visual C#?, Visual Basic?, XML?, Python?, object technology, Internet and web programming, Android app development, Objective-C and iPhone app development and a growing list of additional programming and software development courses. The company’s clients include many of the world’s largest companies, government agencies, branches of the military, and academic institutions. Through its 36-year publishing partnership with Prentice Hall/Pearson, Deitel & Associates, Inc., publishes leading-edge programming college textbooks, professional books and LiveLessons video courses. Deitel & Associates, Inc. and the authors can be reached at: To learn more about Deitel’s Dive Into Series Corporate Training curriculum, visit: To request a proposal for worldwide on-site, instructor-led training at your company or organization, e-mail deitel@deitel.com. Individuals wishing to purchase Deitel books and LiveLessons video training can do so through www.deitel.com. Bulk orders by corporations, the government, the military and academic institutions should be placed directly with Pearson. 展开

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