图书简介：
ISBN：9787121176128
开 本：16开
印 张：38.0
版 次：01-01
页 数：616
字 数：1281
Chapter 1 Discrete Sequences and Systems
1.1 DISCRETE SEQUENCES AND THEIR NOTATION
1.2 SIGNAL AMPLITUDE, MAGNITUDE, POWER
1.3 SIGNAL PROCESSING OPERATIONAL SYMBOLS
1.4 INTRODUCTION TO DISCRETE LINEAR TIME-INVARIANT SYSTEMS
1.5 DISCRETE LINEAR SYSTEMS
1.5.1 Example of a Linear System
1.5.2 Example of a Nonlinear System
1.6 TIME-INVARIANT SYSTEMS
1.6.1 Example of a Time-Invariant System
1.7 THE COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY OF LINEAR TIME-INVARIANT SYSTEMS
1.8 ANALYZING LINEAR TIME-INVARIANT SYSTEMS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 1 PROBLEMS
Chapter 2 Periodic Sampling
2.1 ALIASING: SIGNALAMBIGUITY IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
2.2 SAMPLING LOWPASS SIGNALS
2.3 SAMPLING BANDPASS SIGNALS
2.4 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF BANDPASS SAMPLING
2.4.1 Spectral Inversion in Bandpass Sampling
2.4.2 Positioning Sampled Spectra at fs/4
2.4.3 Noise in Bandpass-Sampled Signals
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 3 The Discrete Fourier Transform
3.1 UNDERSTANDING THE DFT EQUATION
3.1.1 DFT Example
3.2 DFT SYMMETRY
3.3 DFT LINEARITY
3.4 DFT MAGNITUDES
3.5 DFT FREQUENCY AXIS
3.6 DFT SHIFTING THEOREM
3.6.1 DFT Example 2
3.7 INVERSE DFT
3.8 DFT LEAKAGE
3.9 WINDOWS
3.10 DFT SCALLOPING LOSS
3.11 DFT RESOLUTION, ZERO PADDING, AND FREQUENCY-DOMAIN SAMPLING
3.12 DFT PROCESSING GAIN
3.12.1 Processing Gain of a Single DFT
3.12.2 Integration Gain Due to Averaging Multiple DFTs
3.13 THE DFT OF RECTANGULAR FUNCTIONS
3.13.1 DFT of a General Rectangular Function
3.13.2 DFT of a Symmetrical Rectangular Function
3.13.3 DFT of an All-Ones Rectangular Function
3.13.4 Time and Frequency Axes Associated with the DFT
3.13.5 Alternate Form of the DFT of an All-Ones Rectangular Function
3.14 INTERPRETING THE DFT USING THE DISCRETE-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS
Chapter 4 The Fast Fourier Transform
4.1 RELATIONSHIP OF THE FFT TO THE DFT
4.2 HINTS ON USING FFTS IN PRACTICE
4.2.1 Sample Fast Enough and Long Enough
4.2.2 Manipulating the Time Data Prior to Transformation
4.2.3 Enhancing FFT Results
4.2.4 Interpreting FFT Results
4.3 DERIVATION OF THE RADIX-2 FFT ALGORITHM
4.4 FFT INPUT/OUTPUT DATA INDEX BIT REVERSAL
4.5 RADIX-2 FFT BUTTERFLY STRUCTURES
4.6 ALTERNATE SINGLE-BUTTERFLY STRUCTURES
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4 PROBLEMS
Chapter 5 Finite Impulse Response Filters
5.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO FINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE (FIR) FILTERS
5.2 CONVOLUTION IN FIR FILTERS
5.3 LOWPASS FIR FILTER DESIGN
5.3.1 Window Design Method
5.3.2 Windows Used in FIR Filter Design
5.4 BANDPASS FIR FILTER DESIGN
5.5 HIGHPASS FIR FILTER DESIGN
5.6 PARKS-MCCLELLAN EXCHANGE FIR FILTER DESIGN METHOD
5.7 HALF-BAND FIR FILTERS
5.8 PHASE RESPONSE OF FIR FILTERS
5.9 A GENERIC DESCRIPTION OF DISCRETE CONVOLUTION
5.9.1 Discrete Convolution in the Time Domain
5.9.2 The Convolution Theorem
5.9.3 Applying the Convolution Theorem
5.10 ANALYZING FIR FILTERS
5.10.1 Algebraic Analysis of FIR Filters
5.10.2 DFT Analysis of FIR Filters
5.10.3 FIR Filter Group Delay Revisited
5.10.4 FIR Filter Passband Gain
5.10.5 Estimating the Number of FIR Filter Taps
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS
Chapter 6 Infinite Impulse Response Filters
6.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE FILTERS
6.2 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
6.2.1 Poles and Zeros on the s-Plane and Stability
6.3 THE z -TRANSFORM
6.3.1 Poles, Zeros, and Digital Filter Stability
6.4 USING THE z -TRANSFORM TO ANALYZE IIR FILTERS
6.4.1 z -Domain IIR Filter Analysis
6.4.2 IIR Filter Analysis Example
6.5 USING POLES AND ZEROS TO ANALYZE IIR FILTERS
6.5.1 IIR Filter Transfer Function Algebra
6.5.2 Using Poles/Zeros to Obtain Transfer Functions
6.6 ALTERNATE IIR FILTER STRUCTURES
6.6.1 Direct Form I, Direct Form II, and Transposed Structures
6.6.2 The Transposition Theorem
6.7 PITFALLS IN BUILDING IIR FILTERS
6.8 IMPROVING IIR FILTERS WITH CASCADED STRUCTURES
6.8.1 Cascade and Parallel Filter Properties
6.8.2 Cascading IIR Filters
6.9 SCALING THE GAIN OF IIR FILTERS
6.10 IMPULSE INVARIANCE IIR FILTER DESIGN METHOD
6.10.1 Impulse Invariance Design Method 1 Example
6.10.2 Impulse Invariance Design Method 2 Example
6.11 BILINEAR TRANSFORM IIR FILTER DESIGN METHOD
6.11.1 Bilinear Transform Design Example
6.12 OPTIMIZED IIR FILTER DESIGN METHOD
6.13 A BRIEF COMPARISON OF IIR AND FIR FILTERS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS
Chapter 7 Specialized Digital Networks and Filters
7.1 DIFFERENTIATORS
7.1.1 Simple Differentiators
7.1.2 Specialized Narrowband Differentiators
7.1.3 Wideband Differentiators
7.1.4 Optimized Wideband Differentiators
7.2 INTEGRATORS
7.2.1 Rectangular Rule Integrator
7.2.2 Trapezoidal Rule Integrator
7.2.3 Simpson’s Rule Integrator
7.2.4 Tick’s Rule Integrator
7.2.5 Integrator Performance Comparison
7.3 MATCHED FILTERS
7.3.1 Matched Filter Properties
7.3.2 Matched Filter Example
7.3.3 Matched Filter Implementation Considerations
7.4 INTERPOLATED LOWPASS FIR FILTERS
7.4.1 Choosing the Optimum Expansion Factor M
7.4.2 Estimating the Number of FIR Filter Taps
7.4.3 Modeling IFIR Filter Performance
7.4.4 IFIR Filter Implementation Issues
7.4.5 IFIR Filter Design Example
7.5 FREQUENCY SAMPLING FILTERS: THE LOSTART
7.5.1 Comb Filter and Complex Resonator in Cascade
7.5.2 Multisection Complex FSFs
7.5.3 Ensuring FSF Stability
7.5.4 Multisection Real-Valued FSFs
7.5.5 Linear-Phase Multisection Real-Valued FSFs
7.5.6 Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going with FSFs
7.5.7 An Efficient Real-Valued FSF
7.5.8 Modeling FSFs
7.5.9 Improving Performance with Transition Band Coefficients
7.5.10 Alternate FSF Structures
7.5.11 The Merits of FSFs
7.5.12 Type-IV FSF Example
7.5.13 When to Use an FSF
7.5.14 Designing FSFs
7.5.15 FSF Summary
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS
Chapter 8 Quadrature Signals
8.1 WHY CARE ABOUT QUADRATURE SIGNALS?
8.2 THE NOTATION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS
8.3 REPRESENTING REAL SIGNALS USING COMPLEX PHASORS
8.4 A FEW THOUGHTS ON NEGATIVE FREQUENCY
8.5 QUADRATURE SIGNALS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
8.6 BANDPASS QUADRATURE SIGNALS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
8.7 COMPLEX DOWN-CONVERSION
8.8 A COMPLEX DOWN-CONVERSION EXAMPLE
8.9 AN ALTERNATE DOWN-CONVERSION METHOD
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 8 PROBLEMS
Chapter 9 The Discrete Hilbert Transform
9.1 HILBERT TRANSFORM DEFINITION
9.2 WHY CARE ABOUT THE HILBERT TRANSFORM?
9.3 IMPULSE RESPONSE OF A HILBERT TRANSFORMER
9.4 DESIGNING A DISCRETE HILBERT TRANSFORMER
9.4.1 Time-Domain Hilbert Transformation: FIR Filter Implementation
9.4.2 Frequency-Domain Hilbert Transformation
9.5 TIME-DOMAIN ANALYTIC SIGNAL GENERATION
9.6 COMPARING ANALYTIC SIGNAL GENERATION METHODS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9 PROBLEMS
Chapter 10 Sample Rate Conversion
10.1 DECIMATION
10.2 TWO-STAGE DECIMATION
10.2.1 Two-Stage Decimation Concepts
10.2.2 Two-Stage Decimation Example
10.2.3 Two-Stage Decimation Considerations
10.3 PROPERTIES OF DOWNSAMPLING
10.3.1 Time and Frequency Properties of Downsampling
10.3.2 Drawing Downsampled Spectra
10.4 INTERPOLATION
10.5 PROPERTIES OF INTERPOLATION
10.5.1 Time and Frequency Properties of Interpolation
10.5.2 Drawing Upsampled Spectra
10.6 COMBINING DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION
10.7 POLYPHASE FILTERS
10.8 TWO-STAGE INTERPOLATION
10.8.1 Two-Stage Interpolation Concepts
10.8.2 Two-Stage Interpolation Example
10.8.3 Two-Stage Interpolation Considerations
10.9 z-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF MULTIRATE SYSTEMS
10.9.1 Signal Mathematical Notation
10.9.2 Filter Mathematical Notation
10.10 POLYPHASE FILTER IMPLEMENTATIONS
10.11 SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION BY RATIONAL FACTORS
10.12 SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION WITH HALF-BAND FILTERS
10.12.1 Half-band Filtering Fundamentals
10.12.2 Half-band Filter Implementations
10.13 SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION WITH IFIR FILTERS
10.14 CASCADED INTEGRATOR-COMB FILTERS
10.14.1 Recursive Running Sum Filter
10.14.2 CIC Filter Structures
10.14.3 Improving CIC Attenuation
10.14.4 CIC Filter Implementation Issues
10.14.5 Compensation/Preconditioning FIR Filters
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10 PROBLEMS
Chapter 11 Signal Averaging
11.1 COHERENT AVERAGING
11.2 INCOHERENT AVERAGING
11.3 AVERAGING MULTIPLE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMS
11.4 AVERAGING PHASE ANGLES
11.5 FILTERING ASPECTS OF TIME-DOMAIN AVERAGING
11.6 EXPONENTIAL AVERAGING
11.6.1 Time-Domain Filter Behavior
11.6.2 Frequency-Domain Filter Behavior
11.6.3 Exponential Averager Application
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS
Chapter 12 Digital Data Formats and Their Effects
12.1 FIXED-POINT BINARY FORMATS
12.1.1 Octal Numbers
12.1.2 Hexadecimal Numbers
12.1.3 Sign-Magnitude Binary Format
12.1.4 Two’s Complement Format
12.1.5 Offset Binary Format
12.1.6 Fractional Binary Numbers
12.2 BINARY NUMBER PRECISION AND DYNAMIC RANGE
12.3 EFFECTS OF FINITE FIXED-POINT BINARY WORD LENGTH
12.3.1 A/D Converter Quantization Errors
12.3.2 Data Overflow
12.3.3 Truncation
12.3.4 Data Rounding
12.4 FLOATING-POINT BINARY FORMATS
12.4.1 Floating-Point Dynamic Range
12.5 BLOCK FLOATING-POINT BINARY FORMAT
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 12 PROBLEMS
Chapter 13 Digital Signal Processing Tricks
13.1 FREQUENCY TRANSLATION WITHOUT MULTIPLICATION
13.1.1 Frequency Translation by fs/2
13.1.2 Frequency Translation by –fs/4
13.1.3 Filtering and Decimation after fs/4 Down-Conversion
13.2 HIGH-SPEED VECTOR MAGNITUDE APPROXIMATION
13.3 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN WINDOWING
13.4 FAST MULTIPLICATION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS
13.5 EFFICIENTLY PERFORMING THE FFT OF REAL SEQUENCES
13.5.1 Performing Two N-Point Real FFTs
13.5.2 Performing a 2N-Point Real FFT
13.6 COMPUTING THE INVERSE FFT USING THE FORWARD FFT
13.6.1 Inverse FFT Method 1
13.6.2 Inverse FFT Method 2
13.7 SIMPLIFIED FIR FILTER STRUCTURE
13.8 REDUCING A/D CONVERTER QUANTIZATION NOISE
13.8.1 Oversampling
13.8.2 Dithering
13.9 A/D CONVERTER TESTING TECHNIQUES
13.9.1 Estimating A/D Quantization Noise with the FFT
13.9.2 Estimating A/D Dynamic Range
13.9.3 Detecting Missing Codes
13.10 FAST FIR FILTERING USING THE FFT
13.11 GENERATING NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED RANDOM DATA
13.12 ZERO-PHASE FILTERING
13.13 SHARPENED FIR FILTERS
13.14 INTERPOLATING A BANDPASS SIGNAL
13.15 SPECTRAL PEAK LOCATION ALGORITHM
13.16 COMPUTING FFT TWIDDLE FACTORS
13.16.1 Decimation-in-Frequency FFT Twiddle Factors
13.16.2 Decimation-in-Time FFT Twiddle Factors
13.17 SINGLE TONE DETECTION
13.17.1 Goertzel Algorithm
13.17.2 Goertzel Example
13.17.3 Goertzel Advantages over the FFT
13.18 THE SLIDING DFT
13.18.1 The Sliding DFT Algorithm
13.18.2 SDFT Stability
13.18.3 SDFT Leakage Reduction
13.18.4 A Little-Known SDFT Property
13.19 THE ZOOM FFT
13.20 A PRACTICAL SPECTRUM ANALYZER
13.21 AN EFFICIENT ARCTANGENT APPROXIMATION
13.22 FREQUENCY DEMODULATION ALGORITHMS
13.23 DC REMOVAL
13.23.1 Block-Data DC Removal
13.23.2 Real-Time DC Removal
13.23.3 Real-Time DC Removal with Quantization
13.24 IMPROVING TRADITIONAL CIC FILTERS
13.24.1 Nonrecursive CIC Filters
13.24.2 Nonrecursive Prime-Factor-R CIC Filters
13.25 SMOOTHING IMPULSIVE NOISE
13.26 EFFICIENT POLYNOMIAL EVALUATION
13.26.1 Floating-Point Horner’s Rule
13.26.2 Horner’s Rule in Binary Shift Multiplication/Division
13.26.3 Estrin’s Method
13.27 DESIGNING VERY HIGH-ORDER FIR FILTERS
13.28 TIME-DOMAIN INTERPOLATION USING THE FFT
13.28.1 Computing Interpolated Real Signals
13.28.2 Computing Interpolated Analytic Signals
13.29 FREQUENCY TRANSLATION USING DECIMATION
13.29.1 Translation of Real Signals Using Decimation
13.29.2 Translation of Complex Signals Using Decimation
13.30 AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC)
13.31 APPROXIMATE ENVELOPE DETECTION
13.32 A QUADRATURE OSCILLATOR
13.33 SPECIALIZED EXPONENTIALAVERAGING
13.33.1 Single-Multiply Exponential Averaging
13.33.2 Multiplier-Free Exponential Averaging
13.33.3 Dual-Mode Averaging
13.34 FILTERING NARROWBAND NOISE USING FILTER NULLS
13.35 EFFICIENT COMPUTATION OF SIGNALVARIANCE
13.36 REAL-TIME COMPUTATION OF SIGNAL AVERAGES AND VARIANCES
13.36.1 Computing Moving Averages and Variances
13.36.2 Computing Exponential Moving Average and Variance
13.37 BUILDING HILBERT TRANSFORMERS FROM HALF-BAND FILTERS
13.37.1 Half-band Filter Frequency Translation
13.37.2 Half-band Filter Coefficient Modification
13.38 COMPLEX VECTOR ROTATION WITH ARCTANGENTS
13.38.1 Vector Rotation to the 1st Octant
13.38.2 Vector Rotation by ±π/8
13.39 AN EFFICIENT DIFFERENTIATING NETWORK
13.40 LINEAR-PHASE DC-REMOVAL FILTER
13.41 AVOIDING OVERFLOW IN MAGNITUDE COMPUTATIONS
13.42 EFFICIENT LINEAR INTERPOLATION
13.43 ALTERNATE COMPLEX DOWN-CONVERSION SCHEMES
13.43.1 Half-band Filter Down-conversion
13.43.2 Efficient Single-Decimation Down-conversion
13.44 SIGNAL TRANSITION DETECTION
13.45 SPECTRAL FLIPPING AROUND SIGNAL CENTER FREQUENCY
13.46 COMPUTING MISSING SIGNAL SAMPLES
13.47 COMPUTING LARGE DFTS USING SMALL FFTS
13.48 COMPUTING FILTER GROUP DELAY WITHOUT ARCTANGENTS
13.49 COMPUTING A FORWARD AND INVERSE FFT USING A SINGLE FFT
13.50 IMPROVED NARROWBAND LOWPASS IIR FILTERS
13.50.1 The Problem with Narrowband Lowpass IIR Filters
13.50.2 An Improved Narrowband Lowpass IIR Filter
13.50.3 Interpolated-IIR Filter Example
13.51 A STABLE GOERTZEL ALGORITHM
REFERENCES
Appendix A The Arithmetic of Complex Numbers
Appendix B Closed Form of a Geometric Series
Appendix C Time Reversal and the DFT
Appendix D Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation
Appendix E Decibels (dB and dBm)
Appendix F Digital Filter Terminology
Appendix G Frequency Sampling Filter Derivations
Appendix H Frequency Sampling Filter Design Tables
Appendix I Computing Chebyshev Window Sequences
展开